Feldtest

PV Modules

Ein reeler Vergleich zwischen Mono-, Poly, PERC- und Dual-PV-Modulen.

Realtime data
-- -- Ortszeit
Installation date: 09-03-2020
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Bestrahlungsstärke
Rumänien
44°17'59.9"N
26°11'29.7"E

Mono

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

Split-cell

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

Poly

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

PERC

2500Wp --
Total solar yield: --

* Dies ist einFeldtest und die Ergebnisse sind spezifisch für diese Installation an diesem Standort,Recherchieren Sie, welche die beste Lösung für Ihre Situation ist, da die Ergebnisse je nach Umwelteinflüssen unterschiedlich ausfallen können.

Segelyacht

Segeln Sie bequem davon

Motorkreuzer sind Meisterwerke der Technik. Sie packen den Komfort eines Zuhauses in den kompakten Raum einer Yacht. Wohin Sie auch gehen, Sie möchten diesen hart verdienten Luxus in vollen Zügen genießen. Victron bietet ein intelligentes Stromnetz, das sich an jede Herausforderung, in die Sie segeln, anpasst. Damit Sie sich in einem Liegestuhl zurücklehnen können.

Wie viel Energie benötigen Sie für Ihre Reise?

Egal, ob Sie mit der Familie über das Wochenende zum Inselhoppen fahren oder ob Sie eine Woche lang in einer schönen Bucht vor Anker gehen, es ist Ihr Urlaub und Sie tun, was immer Sie wollen. Dies macht die optimale Energielösung wird von Yacht zu Yacht und von Eigentümer zu Eigentümer variieren. Mit Victron können Sie so gut wie alle Pläne antreiben, aber als Beispiel haben wir unten 'normale' und 'höhere' Leistungsprofile für den 'durchschnittlichen' Motorkreuzer dargestellt.

Lassen Sie uns einen Blick auf Ihren Optimalen Energieplan werfen, der das alles möglich macht.

Verbrauch

Wie viel brauchen Sie?

Ein Motorkreuzer wäre nicht komplett ohne eine Menge an elektrischer Ausrüstung. Die meisten Dinge, mit denen das Boot betrieben wird, benutzen normalerweise Gleichstrom, größere (Haushalts-)Geräte benötigen Wechselstrom. Wie viel Leistung ergibt sich daraus? Schauen Sie nicht nur auf die Watts. Eine Mikrowelle verbraucht vielleicht 1000 Watt, aber nur für 4 Minuten. Eine Kühl-/Gefrierkombination verbraucht vielleicht nur 100 Watt, ist aber 24 Stunden am Tag eingeschaltet.

Zur Inspiration haben wir 2 Systembeispiele basierend auf 'normaler' und 'höherer' Anwendung skizziert.

2,4 - 4,8 kWh / Tag

"Normale" und "höherer" Energieverbrauchsprofile. Mehr erfahren

Mehr erfahren

Beispiel 1:

Die Mikrowelle verbraucht 1000W pro Stunde, ist aber nur 4 Minuten lang eingeschaltet
1000W / 60 x 4 = 0,67 kWh / Tag

Beispiel 2:

Die Kühl-/Gefrierkombination verbraucht 84W pro Stunde, ist aber den ganzen Tag eingeschaltet (normalerweise Kühlung ½ des Tages).
84W x 24Std./2 = 1 kWh / Tag

Speicherung & Umwandlung

Wie viel Energie soll gespeichert werden?

Ein Motorkreuzer braucht eine gute Energiespeicherung und eine leistungsstarke Umwandlung auf 230V. Das Aufladen einer Batteriebank von den Motoren aus bedeutet, dass Sie diesen lauten Generator nicht einschalten müssen, wenn Sie für die Nacht vor der Küste vor Anker liegen. Da Sie sich möglicherweise einige Tage nicht bewegen werden, sollte Ihre Hausbatterie eine großzügige Kapazität besitzen. Als Faustregel rechnen wir mit einer Energiespeicherung mit 48 Stunden an Bord ohne Land/Motor/Generator/Solarstrom.

x 2

Die Speicherkapazität einer Lithiumbatterie sollte das Zweifache des täglichen Stromverbrauchs betragen.

x 4

Due to its ±50% smaller discharge capacity, the storage capacity of a lead-acid battery should be four times the daily power consumption.

Umwandlung

Der/die Wechselrichter sollten so dimensioniert sein, dass sie die durchschnittliche Last kontinuierlich bewältigen und dem zu erwartenden Spitzenstrom der Verbraucher entsprechen, den unsere Wechselrichter sehr gut bewältigen (im Durchschnitt das 2fache ihres Dauerstroms).

Erzeugung

Woher kommt die Energie?

All diese Energie muss auf die eine oder andere Weise erzeugt werden. Victron ermöglicht es Ihnen, mehrere Quellen zu einem stetigen Energiefluss zu kombinieren. Im Yachthafen werden Sie an den Landstrom angeschlossen. Auf dem Wasser können Sie eine (zusätzliche) Lichtmaschine an den Bootsmotoren verwenden. Oder schalten Sie einen Generator ein, wenn Sie vor der Küste vor Anker liegen. Schließlich können Sie auf dem Dach Solarpaneele für kostenlose, grüne Energie installieren.

Quellen der Energie

Wechselrichter/Ladegerät
33A - 40A(Oder höher, abhängig von der Batteriekapazität)
Wechselstromgenerator
2x 50A - 80A(Motorabhängig)
Solar
640W+

Power profile

Normal und höherer Energieprofile in kWh, basierend auf dem täglichen Energieverbrauch, der mit der Erzeugung im Gleichgewicht sein sollte.

Akkus in Ah, verdoppeln die Kapazität mittels Blei-Säure Batterien.

Es hat den Anschein, dass Ihr Browser nicht die neuesten Technologien unterstützt, um diesen Abschnitt richtig anzuzeigen, ziehen Sie die Verwendung eines modernen Browsers in Betracht.

Das komplette System

Ein genauerer Blick

Wie übersetzt sich das Energieprofil in ein System? Hier ist unsere Empfehlung für einen durchschnittlichen Motorkreuzer.

Hausbatterie:

AC-devices

Everything you would expect in a home can also be found on a motor cruiser. All these devices need AC to run. Think of:

  • Entertainment suite
  • Television(s)
  • Laptop(s)
  • Phone chargers
  • Fridge and freezer
  • Coffeemaker
  • Breadmaker
  • Dishwasher
  • Microwave
  • Mixer
  • Wine cooler
  • Washing machine

BatteryCombiner

The Cyrix BatteryCombiner is the only safe way to connect the house battery to the starter battery (to start your boat’s engines). With a BatteryCombiner you can charge the house battery from the alternator without running the risk of draining the starter battery (which always should be ready to go). When other sources of power are available (eg. shore/solar/generator power), the Cyrix BatteryCombiner will allow bi-directional charging from the house battery to the starter battery.

When the Voltages of the starter and house batteries are the same, use a Cyrix: its current rating should be equal or bigger than the current rating of the alternator.

If the house battery is Lithium and the alternators Amperage is smaller than the house battery, or when the Voltages of the starter and house battery are different: use a DC-DC converter or Buck-Boost.

BatteryProtect

Discharging your battery too far will damage it. Adding a Victron BatteryProtect will disconnect the boat’s electronics when the battery voltage drops below a pre-set level. It will also automatically reconnect everything when the battery is sufficiently recharged.

There is more to a Victron BatteryProtect. The built-in shutdown delay ensures that vital electronics aren’t disconnected in error, i.e. when starting the engine causes a short drop in battery voltage.

Battery Monitor

A battery monitor is like a "fuel gauge" for your battery. It records how much power is consumed and charged. The battery monitor calculates the state of charge, remaining capacity and time till empty. The battery voltage does not give an accurate indication of how full the battery is. A battery monitor does.

Victron battery monitors keep track of historical data, like the number of charging cycles, deepest discharge, highest voltage, lowest voltage and so on. It will alert you to critical conditions such as low voltage or low charge. The smart monitor can even shut down the entire power supply to avoid expensive battery damage.

Choosing a BMV:

  • Choose a BMV 700 battery monitor if you want to monitor the house battery and don’t need a Bluetooth connection.
  • Choose a BMV 702 battery monitor if you want to monitor both the house battery and the starter battery, and you don’t need a Bluetooth connection.
  • Choose a BMV 712 battery monitor if you want to monitor both the house battery and the starter battery via Bluetooth on a smartphone or tablet.

Boat Network

Keeping grips on all the systems on board can be a hassle. The solution: tie everything together in a single boat network using NMEA communication standards. Your boat network can include navigation equipment, tank senders, battery monitoring and much more. The status information can trigger alarms and shutdowns, adding to the safety on board. The Cerbo GX now supports the NMEA2000 out protocol, allowing you to monitor your boat’s network of systems from wherever you are.

Boat engines

Motor cruisers have one or two diesel engines to get from harbour to horizon. The engines are designed to run continuously, for days on end. They also come with high-output alternators to charge the engine batteries, drive fuel pumps, etc.

Once the starter batteries are recharged, the engines can also power the boat electrics and recharge the house battery. On motor cruiser you’ll find power hungry DC equipment such as anchor windlasses and bow thrusters. The engines have to be running before you can use them.

Boat Electronics

A motor cruiser is packed with dozens of electrical devices. These are all connected to the house battery. Think of:

  • Boat control panel
  • Log/depth sounder
  • Chart-plotter
  • Navigation / GPS
  • Navtex
  • Auto pilot
  • All-band Radio
  • Satellite comms
  • Maritime traffic identification systems
  • Navigation lights
  • Pumps
  • Windlass
  • Bow thruster
  • Fridge and freezer
  • Air conditioning
  • Blowers
  • Interior lighting
  • Music player

Buck-Boost

The Buck-Boost converter is used in dual battery systems, where the (smart) alternator and the start battery are used to charge the service battery (of equal or different voltages). The Buck-boost can be used in 12V or 24V systems and is suitable for both lead acid and lithium batteries.

Charging lithium batteries from the alternator

Alternators cannot be connected directly to most lithium batteries. A lithium battery will draw more current than the alternator can supply, which may result in alternator damage. A Buck-Boost DC/DC converter solves this problem: it acts as a current limiter between the alternator and the battery.

How to select a Buck-Boost? The current rating of the DC/DC converter has to be less than the alternator’s current rating. For example: pair a 50 Amps converter with a 60 Amps alternator. In the software the ideal throughput can be defined.

When the charging capacity exceeds the limits of the Buck-Boost, consider working with DC-DC generator(s) sized to the capacity of the battery bank.

Cerbo GX

The Victron Cerbo GX is the communication-centre of your boat’s installation, allowing you to always have perfect control from wherever you are and maximises its performance. Simply connect through our Victron Remote Management (VRM) portal, or access directly, using the optional GX Touch 50 screen, a Multi Functional Display or our VictronConnect app thanks to its added Bluetooth capability.

The Victron Cerbo GX is an easy to use visual system. Instantly monitor the battery state of charge, power consumption, power harvest from PV, generator, and mains, or check tank levels and temperature measurements. Easily control the shore power input current limit, (auto)start/stop generator(s) or even set quiet periods to avoid starting the generator in the middle of the night. Change any setting to optimise the system, follow up on alerts, perform diagnostic checks and resolve challenges remotely. The Cerbo GX turns any power challenge into an effortless experience.

Galvanic Isolator

A galvanic isolator prevents electrolytic corrosion. The isolator is mounted directly behind the shore power connector on board. It blocks DC currents that might leak through the shore power earth terminal. These currents can cause corrosion to all metal parts under water, like the hull, propeller, shaft, etc. The galvanic isolator should have the same power rating as the incoming shore power.

It’s a misunderstanding that galvanic corrosion occurs only in metal and aluminium hulls. In fact it can occur on any boat as soon as a metallic part (the shaft and propeller) is in contact with water. Galvanic corrosion will quickly dissolve your sacrificial anodes, and attack the shaft, propeller and other metal parts in contact with water as soon as the boat is connected to the shore-side supply. It might therefore be tempting not to connect the ground conductor: this is however extremely dangerous because Ground Fault Current Interrupters will not work nor will a fuse blow in case of a short circuit to a metal part on the boat.

The safe option is to use a Galvanic Isolator for non-metal smaller boats, or use an isolation transformer for metal boats or boats with bigger systems.

Generator

The generator provides energy when shore power is not available and the boat’s engines aren’t running (or can’t supply enough power to meet the demand). The generator is usually supplemented with a inverter/charger and a battery bank. The batteries act as a back-up and allow for quiet periods at night.

Thanks to Victron’s PowerAssist, the generator doesn’t have to be sized for the maximum load. You can use a smaller generator which is cheaper to install, uses less fuel and produces less noise. The inverter automatically bridges the potential gap between supply and demand with support of the battery bank.

GX GSM Dongle

The Victron GX GSM is a 3G cellular modem that enables GX devices with mobile internet for the system and connection to the VRM Portal, allowing you to monitor your system from remote. When the boat is in range of a 3G network, it will send data to the VRM website and you can monitor the boat from your smartphone. The GSM module adds tracking the boat, recording your trips and putting up a geo-fence around the boat. You will get an alert via mail when the boat travels outside the geo-fence area.

House battery

The house battery stores power for the boat’s electrical system. Motor cruisers typically have large power demands and the house battery should have a generous capacity.

For a house battery you can choose from two types: lead-acid and lithium. There are various reasons to favour one over the other. Here are a few common ones:

  • Choose Lead-Acid when:
  • Use occasionally
  • Lower purchase cost
  • Weight and space are not an issue
  • Normal charging
  • Choose Lithium when:
  • Use daily
  • Lower cost per cycle
  • Weight and space considerations
  • Fast charging

House battery

The house battery stores power for the boat’s electrical system. Motor cruisers typically have large power demands and the house battery should have a generous capacity.

For a house battery you can choose from two types: lead-acid and lithium. There are various reasons to favour one over the other. Here are a few common ones:

  • Choose Lead-Acid when:
  • Use occasionally
  • Lower purchase cost
  • Weight and space are not an issue
  • Normal charging
  • Choose Lithium when:
  • Use daily
  • Lower cost per cycle
  • Weight and space considerations
  • Fast charging

Inverter/Charger

On motor cruisers you’ll need an intelligent inverter/charger that automatically switches between various sources to cater for all power needs.

In the marina shore power will be used to feed the boat’s AC grid and charge the batteries. When no shore power is available, the batteries will power both the DC and the AC grid. Power can be drawn from the boat’s engines while sailing. If the power demand gets too high or the batteries get low, the generator will kick in to power the load and charge the batteries.

  • Victron inverter/chargers come with a handful of outstanding features:
  • PowerControl: automatically manage battery charging to prevent an overload of the generator or shore power.
  • PowerAssist: uses the battery as a buffer to assist the shore power during peak power demand.
  • Perfect power: even sensitive devices run flawlessly on the pure sine wave power.
  • High peak-power: use motorised equipment without overheating.
  • Low self consumption.

Thanks to PowerAssist, the generator doesn’t have to be sized for the maximum load. You can use a smaller generator which is cheaper to install, uses less fuel and produces less noise.

If you don’t have a generator on board, a Multiplus is all you need. With a generator on board a Quattro is the better choice.

We strongly recommend 24 Volts for new boats. The higher voltage is simply a better choice when it comes to meeting the power demands of a motor cruiser. If your boat’s system is based on 12 Volts, select a 12 Volts unit instead. If you have dissimilar battery banks, consider charging them using a DC-DC converter, or have it power several dissimilar appliances with a different voltage than the house battery.

Generally speaking, a 3 kVA unit will be big enough, unless the power consumption is higher than average. For example: when you have an air conditioner on board. If this is the case, choose a 5 kVA unit.

MFD GX Integration

The Marine MFD GX integration enables you to easily connect a Multi Functional Display (MFD) to the heart of your power system such as the Cerbo GX, or the GX enabled Multiplus-II GX. Once connected you can easily monitor and control your boat’s power system, right on your Glass Bridge. Now available on the industry’s best MFDs, such as Raymarine, Garmin, Simrad, B&G and Lowrance.

Shore Power

Usually shore power is available in the marina; it is used to run large AC equipment on board and recharge the batteries. Larger boats need a three phase supply. Sometimes shore power can’t provide enough power to cater for the total AC load of the boat. It might also just be single phase.

Often shore power is limited in how much power you can draw, i.e. just 10 Amps. Berths with higher ratings might not always be available. Victron inverter/chargers allow you set a maximum shore power current. Now you can charge your batteries and turn on any equipment without blowing a fuse. Thanks to Victron’s PowerAssist, the generator and batteries can automatically bridge the gap between supply and demand.

Sometimes shore power is less than perfect. You might run into voltage drops if you’re at the far end of the harbour. There could also be power surges, which could harm sensitive equipment on board. Victron’s inverter/chargers smooth out these problems and turn bad power into perfect power.

Solar charger

Solar panels won’t be able to cover all the power needed, but they can reduce the running time of the generator and fuel costs.

A solar charger - also called MPPT controller, harvests the power from the solar panels to charge the house battery. Solar chargers have the same charging cycles as our regular, fully automatic, battery chargers. When your boat is moored without shore spower, solar power is a great way to keep the batteries charged.

In a marine environment, the performance of solar panels changes constantly. Victron’s solar controllers use ultra fast maximum power point tracking to squeeze up to 30% more power out of your panels.

See our Solar Calculator to size the solar panels and select a MPPT charger

Solar panels

Solar panels won’t be able to cover all the power needed, but they can reduce the running time of the generator and fuel costs. Victron offers a wide range of highly efficient solar panels that are just perfect for marine use.

Starter Battery

The starter battery is needed to start your boat’s engines. These batteries are different from house batteries and engineered to deal with a large discharge current. The starter batteries should be ready to go. Always use a BatteryCombiner to connect the starter batteries to the rest of the electrical system; it prevents an accidental drain of power.

GX Touch

The GX Touch 50 display allows you to have an instant overview of your system and adjust settings in the blink of an eye. Simply connected to the Cerbo GX with one cable, its super slim 5 inch waterproof design and its top-mountable setup bring a lot of flexibility when creating a crisp and clean dashboard.

VE.Bus BMS

The VE.Bus BMS is a dedicated battery management system (BMS) that protects lithium batteries against deep discharges, overcharging and high temperatures. When critical values are exceeded, the BMS acts immediately and will have the 230V loads disconnected by the inverter and the 12V/24V loads by the BatteryProtect in case of a deep discharge. Charging is stopped when there is a risk of overcharging. High temperatures trigger an immediate end to both charging and discharging.

The VE.Bus BMS can be used in 24, 24 and 48 Volt systems. The BMS does not physically disconnect the like other BMS do, but sends a signal that will turn the load or charge off. The VE.Bus BMS should always be paired with a BatteryProtect. There is no limit on the size of the connected inverter. The VE.Bus BMS comes standard with a mains detector, so the BMS is able to control the rest of the system when these parameters change: for instance, stopping the charging process of the inverter/charger when shore power is unplugged.

VictronConnect

All Victron products on your boat can be monitored and controlled from the palm of your hand. Just connect the VictronConnect App via Bluetooth and you’ll have direct access to values like battery voltage and current. You can also turn devices on or off, as well as change their settings.

See what the VictronConnect app can do
System-Beispiele

Der Stromverbrauch variiert von Yacht zu Yacht und von Eigentümer zu Eigentümer. Der Optimale Energieplan sollte immer im Hinblick auf die Besonderheiten des Kreuzfahrtschiffes entworfen werden. Aber um Ihnen den Einstieg zu erleichtern, hier zwei Beispiele - mit einem normalen und einem höheren täglichen Energieverbrauch - von Optimaler Energie für einen Motorkreuzer.

Bitte beachten Sie, dass bei der Konzeption und Installation Ihrer optimalen Lösung noch viele weitere Faktoren eine Rolle spielen: Ihr Victron Professional hilft Ihnen dabei gerne.

Um diese detaillierte Tabelle und den gesamten Abschnitt richtig zu sehen, sollten Sie die Verwendung eines modernen Browsers in Betracht ziehen.

Normal
Höherer
Motorkreuzer zwischen 33 - 46 ft
4 Personen
Gleiches Boot, aber intensiver genutzt: länger weg von zu Hause, mehr Komfort, Ausstattung und Menschen an Bord.
Verbrauch
Täglicher Energieverbrauch
2,4 kWh
4,8 kWh
Gesamtleistung Batterien und Generator
± 8 kVA
± 10 kVA
Spitzenleistung Batterien und Generator
± 16 kVA
± 20 kVA
Spitzenleistung Nur Batterien
± 6 kVA
± 10 kVA
Speicherung & Umwandlung
Victron Quattro
24/3000
24/5000
BatteryProtect
100A
220A
Hausbatterie
2x 220Ah 12V
oder 4 x 165Ah 12V AGM
4x 220Ah 12V AGM
oder 25,6V/200Ah Lithium
BatteryCombiner
Cyrix 120A (lichtmaschinenabhängig)
2x Cyrix 120A (lichtmaschinenabhängig)
Oder für Lithium: 2x Buck-Boost 100A (/24V = 50A), wenn die Lichtmaschine lithiumfest ist, oder stellen Sie die Ampere auf die sichere Zone für die normale Lichtmaschine ein.
Erzeugung
Wechselstromgenerator
2x 80A (24V)
2x 80A (24V)
Landanschlussleistung 230V
16A
1x16A
oder 1x25A
Galvanischer Trenner
16A (Nichtmetall-Boote)
Oder Isolationstransformator 3600W (Metallboote oder größere Systeme)
16A oder 32A (Nichtmetallboote)
Oder Isolationstransformator 3600W oder 7000W (Metallboote oder größere Systeme)
Generator
5kVa
Nicht notwendig für dieses Profil
5kVa
Solar
± 640W
± 640W
Idealerweise mehr, falls möglich
Solarladegerät
(Smart) MPPT 100/35
Minimal
Entsprechend der kombinierten Schalttafelspannung einstellen
Systemüberwachung
Batterie-Wächter
BMV-712 Smart
BMV-712 Smart
Erweiterungen
Verfügbare Erweiterungen
Cerbo GX und GX Touch 50
Cerbo GX und GX Touch 50
GX GSM-Modul
GX GSM-Modul
Vollständige Liste anzeigen

Es hat den Anschein, dass Ihr Browser nicht die neuesten Technologien unterstützt, um diesen Abschnitt richtig anzuzeigen, ziehen Sie die Verwendung eines modernen Browsers in Betracht.

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Unser gut etabliertes globales Netzwerk von lokalen Victron Experten hilft Ihnen, eine optimale Lösung für Ihre Herausforderung zu finden.

Zählen Sie auf unseren weltweiten Service

Für Victron ist es wichtig, dass die Kunden schnell und kompetent bedient und betreut werden. Aus diesem Grund verfügt unser globales Netzwerk von Victron Professionals über ein Höchstmaß an technischem Know-how und ist bestrebt, Reparaturen so schnell wie möglich durchzuführen.

Damit Sie Ihre Reise beginnen oder fortsetzen können, wo auch immer Sie hingehen.